The data collected show the position of China as trade partner of a country, in regards to both imports and exports, and the percentage of the country's goods and services imported by and exported to China.
CIA The World Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook).
The Observatory of Economic Complexity (http://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/rankings/country).
The indicator calculates the percentage of the goods and services exported by a country to China on the country's total exports.
Foreign trade data can suffer from mistakes and omissions and are usually not fully comparable. In other words, exports statistics of a given country rarely correspond to the imports statistics of its trade partner. Reasons requiring particular caution are the following:
1) The Harmonised System (HS) revision adopted by the country: the HS is the World Customs Organisation's international nomenclature to classify goods traded between countries for customs purposes, and has undergone different revisions, i.e. 1996, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012;
3) Exchange rate fluctuations are not always reflected in the trade figures;
4) Low-income countries tend to include re-imports into their import statistics and re-exports in their export statistics even if the UN recommendations state that import statistics should becompiled by country of origin (recommendation8.02), and export statistics by last known destination(recommendation8.09).
The indicator calculates the share of China's outward foreign direct investment stock (OFDIs) on a country's total stock of inward FDI (Total FDIs).
Chinese FDI statistics present the following known problems:
a) Data recording method: China gathers data through local commerce bureaus where companies register their foreign investments instead of mandatory enterprise surveys. This can result in substantial underreporting by firms that wish to sidestep approval procedures.
b) Investment amount: stringent capital controls have favoured overstating or understating of investment amount to disguise hot money flows.
c) Round-tripping: sending capitals to Hong Kong or other tax havens only to repatriate them to enjoy preferential tax treatments. This is, however, not an issue in our case because tax havens are not the subject of our study.
d) Destination country: Chinese data report the first and not the last destination country of investment flows. This is the least problematic issue in our opinion because most of the hot money is likely going towards developed countries after leaving Hong Kong or other tax havens, and to a lesser extent towards the Middle East and North Africa.